Using the Bryan wrote 18 essays, printed first in the , a leading Antifederalist newspaper in Philadelphia, between 5 Oct. 1787 and 9 Apr. 1788. The letters warned that the newly formed Constitution, unless modified, posed a threat to civil liberties and the sovereignty of the states.
Nearly a century later, American foreign policy was at the heart of the 1900 presidential contest between Republican president William McKinley and his Democratic challenger William Jennings Bryan. The United States had won Cuba from Spain during the 1898 Spanish-American War, and the Philippine-American War (1899–1902) was underway. McKinley and his vice presidential running mate, Theodore Roosevelt, a war hero, claimed that the United States had liberated Cuba from Spanish tyranny. Bryan countered that American rule over Cuba and the Philippines was no less cruel and imperialist than Spanish rule had been.
Samuel Bryan (1759-1821) was a , who wrote during the . Historians generally ascribe to him the written under the Centinel between1787 and 1789. Centinelattacked the proposed as adocument in the interests of the "well-born few". He was the son of, ajudge on the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and the principalAnti-Federalist in the state, to whom the essays were frequentlyattributed at the time they were written.