Not content to be only a missiologist, Yannoulatos became the greatest modern example of an Orthodox missionary with his service as Acting Archbishop of East Africa (1981-1991) and Archbishop of Albania (1991-present). In East Africa, Archbishop Anastasios followed the ancient Orthodox missionary tradition by fortifying the indigenous Orthodox Church in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania by opening the first Orthodox seminary in Africa and training and ordaining 62 indigenous clergy and 42 specialized catechists. He also oversaw the translation of liturgical services in seven languages, while establishing 67 new churches and building numerous medical clinics and primary schools.
In the late 1950s, a missionary awakening began within the international Orthodox Youth Movement . Anastasios Yannoulatos, a young Greek theologian led this revival, establishing a missionary magazine entitled published in Greek and English. For a decade (1960-1970), this magazine tried to reawaken the Church of Greece and the international Orthodox community to her missionary responsibility. Yannoulatos also established the inter-Orthodox mission center in Athens in 1960, hoping that the center would train and send out cross-cultural missionaries. After a serious bout of malaria ended Yannoulatos’ first missionary endeavors in East Africa in the 1960s, he pursued further studies and became a Professor of World Religions at the University of Athens from 1972-1991. From this position he taught courses on missiology, and made a significant contribution to the Orthodox world, as well as within the ecumenical world, with his original missiological writings. He founded and edited the official mission magazine of the Church of Greece in 1980
Until the schism the five great patriarchal sees were Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. After the break with Rome Orthodoxy became 'Eastern' and the dominant expression of Christianity in the eastern Mediterranean, much of Asia Minor, Russian and Balkans.
Adam and Eve were overcome with the same temptation that afflicts all humanity: to be autonomous, to go their own way, to realize the fullness of human existence without God. According to the Orthodox fathers sin is not a violation of an impersonal law or code of behavior, but a rejection of the life offered by God (Yannaras, 1984). This is the mark, to which the word amartia refers. Fallen human life is above all else the failure to realize the God-given potential of human existence, which is, as St. Peter writes, to "become partakers of the divine nature" (II Peter 1:4). St. Basil writes: "Humanity is an animal who has received the vocation to become God" (Clement, 1993, p. 76).
Eastern Christianity stresses a way of life and belief that is expressed particularly through worship. By maintaining the correct form of worshipping God, passed on from the very beginnings of Christianity. Eastern Christians believe that they confess the true doctrine of God in the right (orthodox) way.
While the Orthodox Churches in the Balkans and the Middle East struggled during these dark ages, the Orthodox Church in Russia actively began participating in significant missionary outreach throughout the lands north and east of Kiev from the 14th century onwards. The most famous missionary of this era was Stephen of Perm, the evangelizer of the Zyrian people of northwestern Siberia from 1378-1396. He followed the missionary model of Cyril and Methodius, creating an alphabet with ancient Zyrian ruins and translating Holy Scriptures and liturgical services for the people, training and ordaining indigenous clergy, and establishing a strong, local Church.
There are many evangelical myths concerning Mormon scholarship. The first is that there are few, if any, traditional Mormon scholarswith training in fields pertinent to evangelical Mormon debates. This is simply false. It is a myth that when Mormons receive training inhistoriography, biblical languages, theology and philosophy they invariably abandon traditional LDS believes in the historicity of theBook of Mormon and the prophethood of Joseph Smith. It Is a myth that liberal Mormons have so shaken the foundations of LDSbelieve that Mormonism is crumbling apart. It is a myth that neo-orthodox Mormons have influenced the theology of their Church tosuch a degree that it will soon abandon traditional emphasis and follow a path similar to the RLDS or the World-Wide Church ofGod. These are myths based upon ignorance and selective reading. These myths must be abandoned by responsible evangelicals.
With the fall of Constantinople in 1453, a period of darkness spread over the Orthodox lands of the Balkans and the Middle East. Islamic law forbade any proclamation of the gospel to those outside the Christian faith, while conversion to Islam was greatly encouraged and sometimes forced upon the subjugated Christians. During these 400 plus years of oppression and decline, the suffering Orthodox Churches in the Balkans and the Middle East were unable to participate in much missionary activity. One unique exception was that of Kosmas of Aitolos, the most famous modern Greek missionary. Kosmas was an 18th century monk from Mt. Athos, who left his monastery after 19 years to re-evangelize hundreds of villages in modern-day northern Greece and Albania. His 20 year missionary effort helped to create more than 200 schools, with the main goal of wanted the future generation of children to be educated and able to read Holy Scriptures and writings of the Church Fathers. He continued his missionary efforts until his martyrdom in 1779.
The Orthodox tradition developed from the Christianity of the Eastern Roman Empire and was shaped by the pressures, politics and peoples of that geographical area. Since the Eastern capital of the Roman Empire was Byzantium, this style of Christianity is sometimes called 'Byzantine Christianity'.
Ancestral sin has a specific meaning. The Greek word for sin in this case, amartema, refers to an individual act indicating that the Eastern Fathers assigned full responsibility for the sin in the Garden to Adam and Eve alone. The word amartia, the more familiar term for sin which literally means "missing the mark", is used to refer to the condition common to all humanity (Romanides, 2002). The Eastern Church, unlike its Western counterpart, never speaks of guilt being passed from Adam and Eve to their progeny, as did Augustine. Instead, it is posited that each person bears the guilt of his or her own sin. The question becomes, "What then is the inheritance of humanity from Adam and Eve if it is not guilt?" The Orthodox Fathers answer as one: death. (I Corinthians 15:21) "Man is born with the parasitic power of death within him," writes Fr. Romanides (2002, p. 161). Our nature, teaches Cyril of Alexandria, became "diseased...through the sin of one" (Migne, 1857-1866a). It is not guilt that is passed on, for the Orthodox fathers; it is a condition, a disease.
(An aside on that: all Orthodox Churches teach the same faith; even the ancient theological misunderstanding between Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian churches has been bridged. So we could say that today’s Greek, Indian, Ukrainian, Ethiopian, Russian, etc Orthodox are akin to the Italian, French, German Catholic churches a century ago: different ethnic expressions of a single faith. As time transform immigrant identity into a full sense of citizenship, the prospect for a single, united American Orthodox Church continues to rise. But, unlike those 19th Roman Catholic churches, Orthodox don’t expect to be ruled by a single world-wide ruler, like the pope. Orthodoxy is organized at the level of “people, tribe, tongue, and nation,” and that is felt to be just about right. Unity comes from common belief instead of external organization—an endoskeleton rather than an exoskeleton. Rome and western Europe were part of this arrangement until roughly a thousand years ago, when papal claims to rulership could no longer be ignored.)