According to a 1994 American Management Association and Deliotte & Touche LLP study "approximately 84% of American companies" are experiencing some type of change (Carson, 1998, p.1).
FlowSim was developed by the roll service group to model the effects of roll properties on water removal in a press section. FlowSim uses and requires many of the same inputs as PresSim, but it requires and models the results using more detail around custom roll surface finishing. Where PresSim requires a roll surface open area, FlowSim requires a complete detail of the roll's surface, including custom drilling and grooving patterns. Therefore, it not only calculates press solids but also total void volume in the press. This level of detail allows the calculation of the minimum distance water must travel to reach voids in the cover and details such as water splits between top and bottom felts, pan flows, uhle flows, etc. FlowSim also includes payback and ROI calculators to help justify cover changes. Examples of FlowSim outputs are available in Appendix J.
This paper presents an empirical research in a protected area of northern Nicaragua, aimed at: (a) classifying predominant narratives surrounding present and future pathways of the local rural system, drivers of change, features of livelihoods’ vulnerability; (b) understanding current functioning of local metabolic patterns of rural systems by developing a typology of farms and (c) comparing types’ vulnerability to current drivers of change. To achieve these objectives, we integrated qualitative and quantitative analytical approaches. The different visions of rural spaces, which emerge from the analysis of the narratives, and the five types of farms, characterized by specific land-time budget and energy and monetary flows, suggest two emerging dynamics of local restructuration in protected areas: (1) a dominant land re-concentration process which is generating increasing inequality in access to resources and a progressive marginalization of the self-sufficient economy of landless and subsistence households; (2) an emergence of a paradigm of ‘environmentalization’ of rural spaces together with a valorization of small and medium-scale diversified economies. Moreover, the vulnerability assessment focuses on multidimensional features of types’ sensitivity to crisis, i.e. risk unacceptability, production instability, economic inefficiency, food and exosomatic energy dependency, as well as capacity to buffer and adapt to change, i.e. access to assets, including labour for men and women, social safety nets and degrees of economic diversification. The discussion highlights the occurrence of trade-off between the solutions adopted by farms within different development paths, suggesting the relevance of the proposed framework of analysis at the interface between science and policy.
It can now be seen that the nip impression is a very useful analytical tool for covered rolls. To obtain satisfactory performance in service, the force within the nip must be uniform. For the force to be uniform it must be symmetrical and the crown on the rolls must be sufficient to compensate for the bending of the roll bodies. Also, if too high a pressure is built up within one area of the nip the possibility of exceeding the acceptable mechanical stresses of the cover is present. For example, a nip might be nominally loaded to 300 PLI, but because of insufficient crown develop 100 PLI load in the center and 600 PLI at the ends. This type of abnormal loading profile affects sheet quality and also causes damage to roll covers and other equipment.
Personal interaction with objects, images and spaces can be so powerful as to change the way one thinks about particular issues or topics. For your intended area of study (architecture/interior design, art history, design, studio art, visual art studies/art education), describe an experience where instruction in that area or your personal interaction with an object, image or space effected this type of change in your thinking. What did you do to act upon your new thinking and what have you done to prepare yourself for further study in this area?
Today, in the age of technology, Metso not only uses the crown and deflection equations of the past, but has also introduced simulations for solving many problems faced by papermakers. Finite element analysis is used in NipSim software to determine nip dynamics. Metso uses PresSim to integrate theoretical calculations, as well as empirical values recorded from pilot machines to model changes in press performance based on manipulation of process inputs. PresSim can be used to predict press solid changes based on a scope as large as a press rebuild or on a scope as small as changing P&J on a press roll cover. FlowSim is a proprietary program which models water removal in a press and how custom drilling or grooving patterns can impact water balances. Finally, one of the most complicated problems for managing rolls can be scheduling and tracking history. Extending intervals between maintenance downs has great payback but it makes roll maintenance more challenging. Metso has developed a roll tracking database called RollTracer that can be used company wide.
This paper will briefly summarize four key areas that leaders and managers must understand in order to successfully make a change, or in the case of our model company CrysTel, manage change dynamically throughout the life of the company....
Compound crowns have been used in areas where there is tendency for very high load buildups at the ends of the rolls. An example of this would be a Yankee pressure roll where the covered roll running against the Yankee drum is subjected to high end loadings due to the design of the drum and the dynamic conditions at which it runs. Another area where compound crowns may be useful is with rolls where very long shaft extensions are encountered. It is not expected, however, to use a compound crown in most new applications. Usually, experience is needed in the service application. Compound crowning generally is a result of overloading problems at the ends of the roll and this may not be observed with static or carbon nip impressions. This would be the case for a Yankee pressure roll where the problem is dynamic. In the situations where a compound crown would be recommended from a nip impression, the nip width across most of the roll face is uniform and the nip will be wider on the ends. It is advisable to consult with Metso Roll Engineers before specifying compound crowns.
Factors such as non-uniform cross sections, unpredictable centers of gravity, areas of localized mechanical support, and non-uniform loading all contribute to deviation from simple beam equations. Theoretical equations could be devised to predict bending for each different roll configuration, but this would be highly laborious and an almost impossible task.
Furthermore, the use of study habits could develop characteristics that are in demand at the workplace, such as organization, self-discipline, motivation, trust, etc....
For your intended area of study (architecture, art history, design, studio art, visual art studies/art education), describe an experience where instruction in that area or your personal interaction with an object, image or space effected this type of change in your thinking.
Some limitations in the study that could have impacted the results were that many studies provided evidence of short-term dietary changes, and left no evidence about long-term dietary changes and effectiveness (p....